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Meteoroid impacts continually blast dust off the surface of Mab. The dust then spreads out into a ring around Uranus. Mab's ring receives a fresh infusion of dust from each impact. Nature keeps the ring supplied with new dust while older dust spirals away or bangs back into the moon.
Showalter and Lissauer have measured numerous changes to the orbits of Uranus' inner moons since 1994. The moon's motions were derived from earlier Hubble and Voyager observations. "This appears to be a random or chaotic process, where there is a continual exchange of energy and angular momentum between the moons," Lissauer said. His calculations predict moons would begin to collide as often as every few million years, which is extraordinarily short compared to the 4.5 billion year age of the Uranian system.
Showalter and Lissauer believe the discovery of the second ring, which orbits closer to the planet than the outer ring, provides further evidence that collisions affect the evolution of the system. This second ring has nov isible body to re-supply it with dust. The ring may be a telltale sign of an unseen belt of bodies a few feet to a few miles in size. Showalter proposes that a previous impact to one of Uranus' moons could have produced the observed debris ring.
Hubble uncovered the rings in August 2004 during a series of 80, four-minute exposures of Uranus. The team later recognized the faint new rings in 24 similar images taken a year earlier. Images from September 2005 reveal therings even more clearly.
Showalter also found the rings in archival images taken during Voyager 2's flyby of Uranus in 1986. Uranus's first nine rings were discovered in 1977 during observations of the planet's atmosphere. During the Voyager encounters, two other inner rings and 10 moons were discovered. However, no one noticed the outer rings, because they are extremely faint and much farther from the planet than expected. Showalter was able to find them by a careful analysis of nearly 100 Voyager images.